Inflation targeting went from being a radical view to the new orthodoxy of central banking. After most central banks have adopted it in practice, they have almost all converged on 2% as the right inflation target, although some emerging market central banks have higher inflation targets.
Having a positive 2% inflation target provides enough room to prevent any fall into deflation, which central banks are poorly equipped to deal with.
Low and stable inflation helps the economy operate efficiently
When inflation is low and stable, individuals can hold money without having to worry that high inflation will rapidly erode their purchasing power. Moreover, households and businesses can make more accurate longer-run financial decisions about borrowing and lending and about saving and investment. Longer-term interest rates are also more likely to be moderate when inflation is low and stable.Explore
No, even targeting 2% inflation does not lead to monetary stability
At 2% inflation, money will lose half its value in 25 years. Genuine price stability requires a target of 0% inflation.
Inflation is the wrong target and central banks should target nominal GDP trend growth
Targeting inflation is the wrong approach. An NGDP-targeting regime could also be more transparent and market-driven than the current interest-rate targeting regime. To further improve transparency, the Fed could engage in level targeting.
Targeting interest rates only affects demand, not supply
Both NGDP targeting and inflation targeting respond to demand shocks by adjusting the money supply to offset any change in the velocity of money (the rate at which money passes from one holder to another). However, NGDP targeting also responds appropriately to a supply shock in any sector of the economy.Explore
This page was last edited on Monday, 24 Feb 2020 at 12:13 UTC